04 December 2017 by Retirees and healthy living 3958 Views




Ag DM, Field Clinics/Occupational Health



HEALTH is the ever-changing process of achieving Individual potential in the physical, emotional, social, mental, spiritual, and environmental dimensions.

WELLNESS is the achievement of the highest level of health possible in each dimension of health.


  • Everyone wants to look and feel healthy.
  • By choosing safer food, healthier nutrition and regular physical activ­ity, HEALTHIER CHOICES and SAFER BEHAVIOURS you can improve your health throughout your life.
  • These key behaviors/Choices are important for your health no matter how old you are or where you live in the world.



  • Nutrition is the process by which a person receives and uses the materials necessary for the maintenance and growth of body cells, synthesis of enzymes and hormones, and production of energy.
  • It maintains one’s ability to resist infection, capacity for reproduction, and a sense of wellbeing.
  • Diet - food and drink considered in terms of its qualities, composition, and its effects on health
  • Dieting- the act of limiting a balanced consumption of the necessary foods and drinks to maintain a healthy lifestyle
  • Though somewhat similar, society has morphed these two terms into completely different things
  • Society has accepted dietingas a form of losing weight.
  • This shouldn't be the case.
  • Continued, balanced nutritionis the way to proper weight control and healthy internal organs.
  • Dieting is often used in combination with physical exercise to lose weight, commonly in those who are overweight or obese.

Some people, however, follow a diet to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle). Diets can also be used to maintain a stable body weight.

There are three main abnormalities:

  • Undernutrition: when a diet is inadequate in quantity – either because it is not available or the person chose not to eat enough
  • Malnutrition: when a diet is inadequate in quality – amount may be enough but the essential nutrients are missing due to poor selection or not affordable.
  • Overnutrition: when a diet contains excessive amounts of calories and fat; at the same time, the diet may be deficient in protein and minerals

Healthy Diet

  • What Does a Proper Diet Consist of?
    Most Unprocessed Foods and Drinks
  • Primarily Vegetables & Fruits
  • Balance of Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins
  • The way to go if one wants to lose weight is to maintain a properly balanced diet that does not restrict the necessary nutritional needs.
  • Is this as easy as taking a pill? No. However, taking a dieting pill usually does not lead to losing the weight
  • A healthy diet helps protect against malnutrition in all its forms, as well as prevents non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, heart disease, stroke and cancer.
  • Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are leading global risks to health.
  • Healthy dietary practices start early in life – breastfeeding fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development, and may have longer-term health benefits, like reducing the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life.

Five Keys to safer food

  1. Keep clean
    • Wash your hands with soap before handling food and often during food preparation
    • Wash your hands with soap after using the toilets
    • Wash and sanitize all surfaces and equipment used for food preparation
    • Protect kitchen areas and food from insects, pests and other animals
  • Separate raw and cooked
    • Separate raw meat, poultry and seafood from other foods
  • Cook thoroughly
    • Cook food thoroughly, especially meat, poultry, eggs and seafood
    • Avoid overcooking when frying, grilling or baking food as this may produce toxic chemicals
  • Keep food at safe temperatures
    • Do not leave cooked food at room temperature for more than 2 hours
  • Use safe water and raw materials
    • Use safe water or treat it to make it safe
    • Wash fruits and vegetables, especially if eaten raw
    • Do not use food beyond its expiry date
  • Give your baby only breast milk for the first 6 months of liFrom birth to 6 months of age your baby should receive only breast milk, day and night
    • Breast feed your baby whenever the baby feels hungry
  • Eat a variety of foods
    • Eat a combination of different foods: staple foods, legumes, vegetables, fruits and foods from animals
  • Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits
    • Consume a wide variety of vegetables and fruits (more than 400 g per day)
    • Eat raw vegetables and fruits as snacks instead of snacks that are high in sugars or fat
  • Eat moderate amounts of fats and oils
    • Choose unsaturated vegetable oils (e.g. olive, soy, sunflower, corn) rather than animal fats or oils high in saturated fats (e.g. coconut and palm oil)
    • Choose white meat (e.g. poultry) and fish that are generally low in fats rather than red meat
    • Limit consumption of processed meats and luncheon meats that are high in fat and salts
  1. Eat less salt and sugars
  • Cook and prepare foods with as little salt as possible
  • Avoid foods with high salt content
  • Limit the intake of soft drinks and fruit drinks sweetened with sugars
  • Choose fresh fruits for snacks instead of sweet foods and confectionery (e.g. cookies and cakes)


  • Weight managementis a long-term approach to a healthy lifestyle. It includes a balance of healthy eating and physical exercise to equate energy expenditure and energy intake.
  • It means keeping your body weight at a healthy level. 
  • Obesity is defined as a body weight greater than 20% of normal weight for height.
  • The World Health Organization has formulated an index for defining obesity.
  • Known as the body mass index (BMI), it is based on the patient's height in meters and weight in kilograms: BMI = weight in kilograms  (height in meters)2


  • WHO defines physical activity as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure
    • including activities undertaken while working, playing, carrying out household chores, travelling, and engaging in recreational pursuits?
  • The term "physical activity" should not be confused with "exercise",
    • which is a subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and aims to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness.
  • Physical fitnessis your ability to carry out tasks without undue fatigue.
    • Learn about the components of physical fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility and body composition .

There are five components of physical fitness you need to consider:

  • Muscular Strength. This is the "power" that helps you to lift and carry heavy objects. ...
  • Muscular Endurance. ...
  • Cardiovascular Endurance. ...
  • ...
  • Body Fat Composition.
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